It’s not an exaggeration to say mental health is a huge issue today. Experts estimate 26 of Americans above 18 years of age suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder. Here are seven types of mood disorders you should know about. What’s the difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 2 disorder. What are the symptoms of the cyclothymic disorder?
Major depressive disorder
When you lose a loved one or you’re facing rough circumstances you’ll be sad for some time. Sadness however is generally a short-term emotion but if you feel deep sadness for a longer duration you could be suffering from a major depressive disorder. Feeling hollow inside is also a big red flag indicating you could be suffering from depression. Also known as clinical depression major depressive disorders are not that uncommon.
2017 data shows 7% of American adults had a major episode in the same year. Typically symptoms include feeling sad on a daily basis and showing reduced interest in activities you previously enjoyed. You might also find a change in your appetite and body weight.
But people often mistake sadness to be the only sign of depression. There are other symptoms too. You could be feeling restless for no reason or experiencing a change in your sleep cycle. The most extreme signs of depression include thoughts about self-harm and feelings of worthlessness. These are the biggest indicators of clinical depression. You also usually find it hard to concentrate or make decisions.
Symptoms of clinical depression include
- Loss of interest in activities you loved
- Feeling hopeless all the time
- Sleep problems
- Constant fatigue
- Rapid breathing and heart rate irritability
- Changes in weight and appetite
- Uncontrollable emotions
- Mood swings
- Thoughts about self-harm
Bipolar 1 disorder
Bipolar disorder can be more intense and difficult to treat than clinical depression. If you have bipolar I, you’ll find yourself in a very excited and energetic stage. This is called a manic episode. A manic episode is so intense, you wouldn’t be able to do your normal activities. If you’re in a manic phase, it would be difficult for people around you to bring you back into a normal state. Sometimes the symptoms are extreme enough to the point you’ll require hospitalization. Typically, symptoms include restlessness and difficulty concentrating. You would also find yourself with more energy than usual.
Other symptoms include difficulty sleeping and displaying risky behavior. This could include spending more money than you can afford or having multiple sexual relationships. People with bipolar I disorder may or may not have a depressive episode. Also, it can only be diagnosed as a manic phase if it’s not due to influences like alcohol and drugs. The biggest myth plaguing bipolar I disorder is that people often romanticize mania episodes. They think it’s just a phase where you’re extremely productive and fun to be around. That you’re in an exceptionally good mood all the time. Mania feels good at first but without treatment, it can quickly become terrifying.
High irritability, snapping at loved ones, hypersexuality, and shopping sprees can wreak havoc on a person’s life. If we were to sum up symptoms of Bipolar 1 during a manic episode, they would be:
- Feeling euphoric or irritable
- Flying from one idea to the next within minutes
- Loud speech Inflated self image and overconfidence
- Substance abuse Hyperactivity and increased activity
- Decreased need for sleep
Bipolar 2 disorder
The second type of bipolar disorder is one where you have a major depressive episode for a minimum of two weeks, accompanied by a hypomanic episode. People with Bipolar II disorders do not generally have a full-fledged manic episode and typically don’t require hospitalization. A hypomanic episode is less intense than a manic episode. But your behavior would still be different enough for the people around you to recognize it’s not your normal state. Just as with a manic episode, if the change in behavior is because of alcohol or drugs, it won’t be recognized as hypomania.
Sometimes it’s possible for a medical health professional to misdiagnose bipolar II disorder as depression. This is because when you go for a diagnosis, the major focus may fall on your symptoms of depression. Typically, symptoms of Bipolar II disorder include:
- Hypomanic episode less intense than mania
- Cycling back and forth between hypomania and depression
Bipolar disorder is one of the most misunderstood conditions. People think it’s very rare. In reality, one in five Americans has a mental health condition, and 2 million of them have bipolar disorder. Do not mistake bipolar disorder to be just mood swings. The highs and lows are very different from common mood swings. If you have bipolar disorder, you’ll experience extreme changes in your energy levels, activity, and sleep.
That doesn’t happen with mood swings. Another myth about bipolar disorder is you can cure it with lifestyle changes. While healthy diet and exercising can help to a certain degree, you can never CURE bipolar disorder with just this. You need medication AND therapy along with a holistic approach towards life.
Cyclothymia is a mild mood disorder, in which your mood will have ups and downs. These mood swings are thankfully not as extreme as bipolar disorder. You typically go through low-level depression for a few weeks, and then a few days of hypomania. Symptoms of the cyclothymic disorder are simply depressive symptoms and manic symptoms. During the depressive cycle, you’re irritable and aggressive with people around you.
You will see changes in your appetite and weight as well. Sleep disorders and low energy, along with low sex drive also exist. You might feel worthless and become forgetful, as you find it difficult to concentrate. During the manic cycle, symptoms include a lack of focus and disorganized thought. You start to speak so fast, it’s hard to understand you. You also display extremely high self-esteem and can become hyperactive and argumentative.
Other symptoms include a lack of sleep, hyper-sex drive, and impulsive behavior. Cyclothymia usually starts during adolescence. You might be functioning normally, but become moody and difficult. While cyclothymic disorders are not extreme enough to require hospitalization, they could develop into bipolar disorders. Before we move ahead, here’s another video you might like. Watch and learn more about 9 foods that can boost your brain function and memory.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
DMDD is mostly seen in children. When a child throws temper tantrums that go beyond just mood swings, this is likely to be the case. Children with DMDD may find it difficult to function and need clinical attention. Symptoms of DMDD include being angry for most of the day, and having trouble functioning in environments such as home and school. If the child has a severe temper tantrum at least three times a week, it could be DMDD. Typically, a child needs to exhibit these symptoms at least 12 months before they can be diagnosed.
Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a type of depression where symptoms are not as severe but last for a much longer period. You might suffer from PDD for years. It could get in the way of your daily functions, like work and personal relationships. Symptoms for PDD are the same as depression, but they occur every day for at least two years. These symptoms include feeling hopeless and showing a lack of interest in daily activities. You would also have low energy levels and find it difficult to concentrate on things.
Other symptoms include sleep-related and appetite-related issues, as well as a tendency to avoid social activities. You also exhibit low self-esteem and negativity, along with a decrease in productivity.
Many women face PreMenstrual Syndrome (PMS), a condition where they face abdominal pain and headache in the days leading up to their period. If you have PMS, which occurs among 20% to 40% of women, you would also feel irritable and sometimes bloated. If the symptoms of PMS are severe, then it’s known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This occurs among 3% to 8% of women who experience PMS and often require medication. If you have PMDD, you’ll find it hard to function or stick to your daily routine. This could affect your relationships as well.
Symptoms for PMDD include mood changes, paranoia, and emotional sensitivity. You will also be severely fatigued and experience coordination difficulties. Other symptoms include headaches, backache, abdominal bloating, and dizziness. Sometimes you might also have muscle spasms and hot flashes. Mood disorders typically require medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Your body gives off warning signs of emotional and mental exhaustion. You need to be alert enough to listen to them.